As a catalyst, niobium chloride plays an important role in organic synthesis. Most of the reactions catalyzed by niobium chloride have reaction strips.
In addition, pentachloride has the advantages of mild, short time, high yield, less catalyst consumption, simple operation, stereoselectivity and location selectivity.
Niobium-catalyzed multi-component one-pot synthesis provides a new method for the synthesis of complex compounds, and its combination with new organic synthesis technologies such as microwave irradiation provides a new field in this field.
With the unremitting efforts and in-depth research of chemical workers, the application of niobium pentachloride in organic synthesis will be more extensive.
Niobium(V) chloride forms chloro-bridged dimers within the solid state (see figure). every Nb centre is six-coordinate, however the octahedral coordination is considerably distorted. The equatorial niobium–chlorine bond lengths area unit 225 pm (terminal) and 256 pm (bridging), while the axial niobium-chlorine bonds area unit 229.2 pm ANd area unit deflected inwards to create an angle of eighty three.7° with the equatorial plane of the molecule. The Nb–Cl–Nb angle at the bridge is one hundred and one.3°. The Nb–Nb distance is 398.8 pm, too long for any metal-metal interaction. NbBr, TaCl and TaBr area unit isostructural with NbCl, however NbI and TaI have totally different structures.
In patch testing Nb (V) chloride is employed to diagnose Nb contact hypersensitivity reaction. Nb could be a metal which might be found in microalloyed steel, superalloys, magnets and electroceramics. In medication, Nb is found in medical devices like pacemakers or joint replacements. Nb is additionally employed in jewellery.